In all likelihood, your first encounter with a balanced scorecard would have been your report card, where individual school projects, tests and exams were given a certain weight in accordance to their level of importance. In purchasing, this tool is put to practice in supplier selection and supplier evaluation. It is used to avoid risk, reduce costs, mitigate rogue or maverick purchasing and ultimately aid in the selection of the most qualified good or service provider. Performance metrics are listed in columns and are then scored using a standard numerical value range often being 0% to 100% or 1 through 10. Each individual score is then multiplied by the weight determined by their level of importance and are summed at the bottom, often converted into a percentage format. This is part 2 of a 2 article series that will provide the reader with tips and best practices for the creation of supplier evaluation balanced scorecards.
Now that you have selected your supplier(s) using the points outlined in part 1 of this article, titled Creating a Supplier Selection Balanced Scorecard in Excel, your supplier evaluation responsibilities are far from complete. Suppliers must be regularly tracked to ensure that KPIs including price, quality and reliability, or whatever metrics are important to your organization, are available for evaluation. Your Supplier Evaluation Scorecard will be broken down into two separate tables: your Supplier Evaluation Scorecard and your Historical Tracking Scorecard.
Supplier Evaluation Scorecard
The Supplier evaluation table will include columns possessing the following titles:
- KPI Groups (optional)
- Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
- Performance Target (optional)
- Acceptable Score
- Score This Month
- Variance from Acceptable Score
KPI Groups (optional) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
KPIs include a description of the metrics used to evaluate the success of the good or service provider. The KPIs can be grouped into a KPI Area (optional) column that proceeds it using KPI groups such as Customer Service, Cost, Quality, etc.
Performance Target (optional)
The optional Performance Target column includes the quantifiable goal you wish for the KPI row to achieve. While it is nice to be specific in producing your supplier evaluation balanced scorecard, the point is to spend your time evaluating, as opposed to producing the most detailed document. So use the Performance Target column with caution.
The Measurement column describes precisely how you will quantify the score associated with each KPI.
The following column titles are self-explanatory. The Acceptable Score is the score that you would accept. This is the passing score, not necessarily a perfect score.
Score This Month
The Score This Month column is where you do the actual scoring. The time interval does not have to be monthly. Use the evaluation time interval that is appropriate for your situation. It is important to remain constant in your scoring for the purpose of incorporating this data with the Historical Tracking Scorecard that we will get to in a minute.
Variance from Acceptable Score
A simple =Score This Month cell – Acceptable Score cell formula will deliver your Variance from Acceptable Score for each KPI. The resulting value is what will be used in your Historical Tracking Scorecard.
Historical Tracking Scorecard
The Historical Tracking Scorecard is where your historical scores are recorded and evaluated. This table can either be placed on the same tab, or on its own separate tab. The table is a stripped-down version of the Supplier Evaluation Scorecard including the optional KPI Area column if you added one, an identical KPI column, and your time interval columns. As this example uses months, we will add 12-time intervals to evaluate. Of course, you can evaluate weekly, quarterly, yearly, etc. Each time interval, copy the score from the Variance from Acceptable Score column in the Supplier Evaluation Balanced Scorecard and paste those figures into the time interval column that corresponds with it in the Historical Tracking Scorecard.
To make the Historical Tracking Scorecard more visual: turn it into a line chart by selecting the entire table’s containments and clicking on the Insert Tab ==> Chart ==> Line
Right click inside the chart and click Select Data. In the Select Data Source menu, for each Legend entry, highlight the name field and click the KPI cell (start with the first KPI). Then highlight the Y values field and select the entire time interval ROW that are associated with that KPI, all 12 months in our example. Do not include your KPI name. Repeat this step for every KPI. For the Horizontal (Category) Axis Label field, highlight the row cells that indicate your time intervals (month numbers/names, quarter names, etc.) You now have a beautiful chart that will help visualize your historical scores for each KPI. Customize the chart according to your preferences.
Now that you have completed your Supplier Evaluation and Historical Tracking Scorecards, it is vital to spend the time to fill them out within the specified time interval (weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.). If for whatever reason you miss a time period or neglect to analyze the evaluation data you spent time making clear and easy to interpret, you will have wasted the time you spent producing the scorecards. It is also crucial that you remain constant in your scoring standards. Otherwise your supplier’s performance data will be distorted over time.